Table 2: On Hoftstede's Cultural Dimensions (selected dimensions) and type of anti-corruption legislation and strategies
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
COLONIAL HONG KONG
ON HOFTSTEDE'S CULTURAL DIMENSIONS
Small Power Distance (PD) American society; members of the
society tend to reject social inequality; members of a society
are therefore treated as equal as possible (as part of the core values),
even in an unequal society.
With a small PD, there is clear rejection against corruption.
Efforts in terms of active education, promotion and community relations
may turn out to be futile; investigative operations unwelcomed.
Large PD Chinese society; members of the society
find inequality intrinsic to their society; are more willing to accept
the inequality; big inequality in power is considered by the less powerful
members of the society as normal.
With a large PD, there is a high degree of tolerance of corruption.
Investigative operations are respected and feared; education and
propaganda exercises using the mass media are effective in general.
TYPE OF ANTI-CORRUPTION LEGISLATION
Civil or relatively lenient policies are more favored than the
stringent ones, meaning self-governance is crucial.
People are encouraged to report spontaneously – the U.S. False Claims Act 1967
expects citizens to bring lawsuits against those alleged to have
defrauded the federal government, and if the plaintiff succeeds,
he or she is entitled to keep a percentage of the amount recovered.
Civil laws, False Claims Act 1863 ,
followed by laws protecting whistle blowers, anti-money laundering,
income and asset declaration, etc.
Stringent policies based on criminal investigation are more
respected than the lenient ones, making operations effective.
People speak up only when asked by the anti-corruption agency or
being ordered – the ICAC Ordinance 1974 expects citizens to comply and,
if possible, to help with substantiating proof and evidence in
criminal proceedings set at much higher standard of proof than in civil cases.
Criminal laws, in particular, the ICAC Ordinance 1974.
STRATEGIES: GOVERNMENT & SOCIETY
The U.S. government and the President respect the independence and
freedom of choice of the American people. Anti-corruption work
depends on peer reporting, the mass media and various reactive measures.
Society's initiative is considered very important (society-centered).
Anti-corruption is geared toward self rejection and neither prevention
nor education prevails.
In conflicts between the government and the people, the decision
goes to the people – maybe because of the votes?
Hongkongers generally pay respect to appointed Governors.
With a relatively large power distance society, anti-corruption
depends on proactive measures, high-profile arrests,
and heavy anti-bribe propaganda exercises.
Order of the society is very important (public order-centered). Anti-corruption
is geared toward close prevention, monitoring, public education,
plus strong and proactive operations.
In conflicts between the government and the people, the government
often wins – after all, the Governor was appointed by the UK,
so who cares?
STRATEGIES: EDUCATION & DETERRENCE
People generally think individually as to whether they will or will not
take or give bribes. Education therefore fails for those who believe
bribing/corruption is acceptable (or is a low-risk crime).
Government expect people to behave in order to stop corruption –
effective anti-corruption strategies depend on self rejection plus two-way
communication between the government and the people.
People tend to accept/believe what the government says.
People refrain from taking or giving bribes altogether, if and only if
they accept the law (defining corruption as a high-risk crime).
People generally expect the government to pass stringent laws for them
to obey – effective anti-corruption strategies are the results of
the excellence, efficiency and effectiveness of the agencies.
Table 2: On Hoftstede's Dimensions and anti-corruption legislation and strategies
Note 3: The American Civil War (1861-1865) was characterized by fraud and bribery
on all levels. During the war, unscrupulous contractors sold the Union Army decrepit
horses and mules in ill health, faulty rifles and ammunition, and rancid rations
and provisions, among other unscrupulous actions. In response, Congress passed the False
Claims Act (also known as the Lincoln Law) on March 2, 1863.
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For those you who don't have time
to read all our news excerpts about the Asian island
disputes (links above), you may find the following video,
"The economic impact of a war between Japan and China",
"This trial is another example of the Kremlin's attempts to discourage and delegitimize dissent. It is likely to backfire."
John Dalhuisen, Director of Amnesty International's Europe and Central Asia Programme
I am proud to announce that
the Commentary.com website is now carrying the technology updates
from Usman Khurshid's Technize.net.
Usman is a network consultant and works in a mixed environment
of Windows and Linux platforms.
He likes to study about the
latest advancements in computer technology and shares his views on his blog.
Oh, please do not get me wrong.
This new section is not about computers, electronics or
any engineering stuff, but rather I am currently constructing
a new corpus based on Spectrum, the monthly publication
from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers USA,
from July 2007 to date. Having been a member for
over 20 years since 1992, I am always fascinated by
some of the terms scientists use when they talk about or
envision their new inventions or methodologies. How many of
them eventually come into practice? Could there be
some insights we could possibly derive, from
the linguistics perspective?
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