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 Tuesday, November 20 2018 1:45pm Hongkong Time

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Now, let us move on to the second table, Table 2.

*** Actions in General ***
ACCEPTING     4942 1.27 M6.64
ACCEPT       26769 0.15 M3.51
ACCEPTANCE    7126 0.13 M3.31
ACCEPTED     24978 0.22 M4.13
ACCEPTS       2028 0.39 M4.95
ATTEMPT      36272 0.13 M3.37
ATTEMPTS     11826 0.19 M3.86
ATTEMPTED    13032 0.20 M3.97
ATTEMPTING    6495 0.40 M4.97
DENIES        2234 0.22 M4.13
OFFER        32931 0.21 M4.01
OFFERED      37059 0.21 M4.04
OFFERING     11159 0.36 M4.81
OFFERS       11870 0.19 M3.86
PAID         47148 0.14 M3.41
PAYING       13785 0.19 M3.88
PAYMENT      10213 0.15 M3.52
PAYMENTS      7294 0.12 M3.27
RECEIVING    10775 0.23 M4.18
TAKING       75807 0.13 M3.32

*** Descriptive Terms ***
CROOKED       4058 0.15 M3.53
DECEIT        1330 0.30 M4.56
DECEIVED      4744 0.15 M3.53
DISGUISED     2611 0.11 M3.17
DISHONEST     1905 0.16 M3.62
DISORDERLY    1279 0.23 M4.20
DISTASTEFUL   1255 0.24 M4.23
LIED          3554 0.14 M3.46
PRACTICED     4291 0.12 M3.19
SUCKED        2470 0.12 M3.25
*** As an Offence/Crime ***
ACCUSE        2135 0.19 M3.87
ACCUSED      10654 0.25 M4.31
ACCUSATIONS   1785 0.22 M4.13
ACQUITTAL      753 0.40 M4.96
ACQUITTED     1483 0.34 M4.72
ALLEGATIONS   1471 0.61 M5.58
ALLEGED       7546 0.83 M6.03
ALLEGEDLY     1494 0.67 M5.71
ALLEGATION     652 0.31 M4.59
ALLEGING       567 0.35 M4.79
CHARGE       41927 0.14 M3.46
CHARGES      17961 0.55 M5.43
CHARGED      18292 0.24 M4.23
CHARGING      3663 0.14 M3.42
CONVICTED     4573 0.57 M5.48
CONVICT       2277 0.13 M3.37
CONVICTION   13381 0.14 M3.47
DENIES^       2234 0.22 M4.13
INVESTIGATE   4594 0.11 M3.09
INVESTIGATING 3531 0.14 M3.47
JAILED         823 0.24 M4.25
JUDICIOUS     2630 0.19 M3.90
JUDICIOUSLY    875 0.23 M4.16
INDICTED      1952 1.13 M6.46
INDICTMENT    3149 0.64 M5.64
INDICTMENTS   1005 1.19 M6.55
PROSECUTE     1371 0.36 M4.84
PROSECUTING   1155 0.26 M4.35
PROSECUTION   4630 0.17 M3.76
PROSECUTIONS   641 0.31 M4.61
SENTENCED     3132 0.13 M3.32

Table 2: Actions and descriptive terms associated with "bribe"

Bribe deeply-rooted in the culture?

So when people think that it's just paltry (MI=4.74) or petty (MI=3.72) sums of money (MI=3.48) that are normally involved in graft cases, what really happened seems to be a lot more distressing. First, getting bribe takers and givers formally charged with the crime, i.e. be convicted (MI=5.48), indicted (MI=6.46), or anthying resulting in an indictment (MI=5.64, MI=6.55) seems to be relatively difficult as they are mostly alleged (MI=6.03, MI=5.71) allegations (MI=5.58) with few hard evidence and acquittal (MI=4.96) seems to dominate. It turns out from our statistics that social phenomena like "accepting (MI=6.64) a bribe" or "bribe accepting (MI=6.64)" has become something more and more common in the culture and bribe, unfortunately, is no longer an isolated criminal event as in "someone accepted (MI=4.13) a bribe (for once)." It is therefore why, I, like many others I believe, would sincerely hope that the MI value for "bribe acceptance (MI=3.31)" will not grow any more alarming than what it is now.

*** How it ends ***
ACCUSED^     10654 0.25 M4.31
ACQUITTED^    1483 0.34 M4.72
CHARGED^     18292 0.24 M4.23
CONVICTED^    4573 0.57 M5.48
DENOUNCED     3665 0.14 M3.42
DENOUNCING    1166 0.26 M4.33
EFFECTUAL     1861 0.16 M3.66
FLOURISHED    2185 0.23 M4.16
INEFFECTUAL   1285 0.23 M4.19
IMPEACHMENT   1802 0.28 M4.44
JAILED^        823 0.24 M4.25
LIED^         3554 0.14 M3.46
PROSECUTION^  4630 0.17 M3.76
SCANDAL       4931 0.55 M5.42
SCANDALS      1262 0.40 M4.95
SENTENCED^    3132 0.13 M3.32
THREATEN      3535 0.14 M3.47

*** Psychological Cause ***
AVARICE       1116 0.27 M4.40
GREED         2495 0.12 M3.23
SORDID        1866 0.16 M3.65
*** Associated Crimes ***
ASSASSINATION 2375 0.17 M3.72
BLACKMAIL     1207 1.99 M7.28
COERCION      1247 0.88 M6.11
FRAUD         5178 0.75 M5.88
FORGED        1912 0.31 M4.62
FORGERY        949 0.42 M5.04
HOMICIDE      1642 0.18 M3.84
PERJURY       1154 1.99 M7.29
TREACHERY     2743 0.15 M3.51
TREASON       3854 0.54 M5.41
THREAT       11839 0.13 M3.31
THREATS       5223 0.82 M6.01

Table 3: Feelings and endings of "bribe"

Disgusting crime with sad endings

Does it mean that those who committed bribery always get away with their crimes? Well, maybe, but maybe not. From the data we found (see Table 3), it may suggest that the story goes like this. First, the crime somehow gets revealed as scandal(s) (MI=5.42, MI=4.95). So, to cover up the dirty work, more dirty work has to be done. These could include, but not limited to, blackmail (MI=7.28), coercion (MI=6.11), threats (MI=6.01), fraud (MI=5.88), forgery (MI=5.04), and, the most stunning of all, treason (MI=5.41). And with all these crimes committed one after another, the only way to get away with breaking all these laws, sadly to say, is perjury (MI=7.29) – note as well the terribly high MI value. But lies are lies and the truth always reveals itself. So, criminals, in time, will eventually be convicted (MI=5.48).

So, why risk a good man's integrity taking or offering bribe?

ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTOR

Raymond Cheng, PhD DPA FRSA, is the founder and chief editor of Commentary.com. He is an adjunct professor in international business and in marketing, an independent policy analyst as well as a language and cultural briefing consultant.

Email Raymond at raymond {dot} cheng {at} kellogg {dot} oxon {dot} org



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COUNT ON THE STATISTICS  100% Towels (c) Daniel Chittka
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This new section contains some interesting statistics in bribe and corruption, please check back for more as we pile up our numbers!

It's statistics time!  Using n-gram: kickback, graft, bribe and corruption - Comparison of their historical occurrences from 1810 to 2009 A.D.

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