Commentary Logo
Japan Island disputes in Southeast Asia    World War III Alarm Anti-Islam video and anti-US sentiment    Skull Say no to brainwashing

       peace and anti-war Israel Iran strike imminent    sanctions as a result of nuclear tests Sanctions on Iran and workarounds    black lightning bolt India's massive blackout

Snapshots of news
Gearheads and mastheads
SHORTCUT TO MAIN SECTIONS & ARTICLES
Home  •  About this site  •  How did we once fight corruption in colonial Hong Kong?
 •  Historical US administrative thoughts  •  USA versus colonial Hong Kong
 •  Anti-corruption review of Nigeria  •  Procurement monitoring in Nigeria
 •  Syndicated news  •  Usman's blog  •  Anti-graft news  •  Socialist news

 Saturday, November 25 2017 7:02pm Hongkong Time

SKIP TO     Page 1 | Page 2 | Page 3 | Page 4 | Page 5 | Page 6 | References

Behavior: How reality was created

While steady improvement of the economy can be a catalyst in changing people's attitude, the behavior of the people can also be a decisive factor. Consider the following figure (Figure 4):

Relating Geert Hofstede's Power Distance, Individualism and Corruption Perception Index (CPI) of 40 countries
Figure 4. Relating Power Distance, Individualism and CPI of 40 countries [9] (Source: (1) Hofstede, G., 1991, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind: Intercultural Cooperation and its Importance for Survival, McGraw Hill, New York. (2) TI, 2004.)

In the above figure (Figure 4), we picked 40 countries, located them using Hofstede's power distance [10] theory (Hofstede, 1997), and mapped them with their corresponding CPI values (Transparency International [TI], 2004). The figure demonstrates, visually, how the CPI (the "perception") might be related [11] to the chemistry of the government-society interaction and the effectiveness of the anti-corruption strategies as a function of the perceived strength of legislation, political will, and the degree of obedience toward the law (ok, for those who disagree, I know I owe you a statistically sound explanation... and which I will be doing later on) We then come up [12] with the following (Table 1):

SMALL POWER DISTANCE SOCIETIES
e.g. European, Aussies, American etc.
LARGE POWER DISTANCE SOCIETIES
e.g. Asian, Nigerian, Mexican etc.
Government respects the independence of the people. AC agencies use reactive measures. The society generally respects their leader(s). AC agencies uses proactive measures.
Society's initiative is considered very important (society-centered). AC is geared toward prevention and education, not operations. Order of the society is very important (public order-centered). AC is geared toward strong and proactive operations.
Government expect people to behave in order to stop corruption. People generally expect the government to pass stringent laws for them to follow.
People are encouraged to report spontaneously. People speak up only when asked by the AC agency or being ordered to.
People generally think individually as to whether they will or will not take or give bribes. Education fails for those who believe corruption is acceptable (because corruption then becomes a low risk crime). People tend to always accept (or forced to accept) what the government says. People will refrain from taking or giving bribes altogether, if they happen to accept the law (high risk crime).
Effective AC strategies depend on two-way communication in society. Effective AC strategies are more likely to be results of excellence of the AC agencies. In case the government is corrupted, AC policy fails altogether.
In conflicts between the government and the people, the decision often goes to the people's side. In conflicts between the government and the people, the government makes the call and often forces whatever it wants with the laws.
Lenient policies are more liked than the stringent ones, meaning self-governance (as well as education) is crucial. Stringent policies are more respected (and feared) than the lenient ones, making operations effective.

Table 1: Power Distance and Anti-Corruption ("AC") – The Two Extremes

It is important to remember that the above table (Table 1) only gives a general description of the two extreme environments and characteristics and that in reality the majority of countries would lie somewhere in between. While some of the societies may find either the small or the large power distance description familiar some others may identify themselves with features described in both categories. Austria ("AT") and Israel ("IL"), for instance, would be closest to our small power distance society model whereas the Philippines ("PH") and Venezuela ("VE") would look like the opposite type. Countries like Italy ("IT") or Spain ("ES"), nevertheless, fall somewhere in between these two (Polak 2001).

Now, let us take a look at the vertical axis of Figure 4. According to Hofstede (2001), societies on the individualist end (the bottom part) are those in which the "ties between individuals are loose and everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family." On the collectivist [13] end (the top part), we expect to find societies in which "people from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, often extended families with uncles, aunts and grandparents which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty." Similar to the power distance case, different people from any certain country may not fall into the same category.

So what does this have to do with Hong Kong?

The power distance theory and the individualism analysis provided an explanation as to why the three-pronged approach as adopted by the Hong Kong ICAC only worked very successfully in Hong Kong but had never really worked that successfully when other cities tried to do a copycat. For example, in Zambia (labeled "ZM" in Figure 4), a country that also lies in the large power distance region like Hong Kong, they did not benefit much when they attempted to copy directly the Hong Kong legislation model while trying to fight their own corruption problem (Bakare, Banda, Cheng, Ekwekwuo, & Villanueva, 2004). The reason behind, which is also very much applicable to Nigeria ("NG"), is because the two countries are both highly diversified into large numbers (over two hundred and fifty [14] in Nigeria) of clans or ethnic groups and that these ethnic groups neither speak nor communicate through a common dialect (US Central Intelligence Agency [USCIA], 2003) – the only language that they use to communicate across ethnic groups is English – and, sadly, which is the left behinds of the former British occupants. This has led to the wrongful formation and implementation of the preventive policies against corruption in both Zambia and Nigeria because the authorities were targeting individuals in the nation as a whole – yet they should have targeted the corruption problem among different clans or ethnic groups (if you disagee, please let me know). Technically speaking, both the Zambian and the Nigerian societies are "compounds" (not mixtures) of individual small power distance ethic domains and should not therefore be treated as one single large power distance society. It was only because the power distance values were derived from surveys of individuals that resulted in both Zambia and Nigeria being listed as large power distance societies – the large power distance societies only exist within ethnic groups, not across.

Consequently, the result of such a miscalculation (at the policy level) is that the anti-corruption policies in some of these countries were considered as policies that interfere with the nationals' traditional culture, norms and values. And, in the case of Nigeria, such type of policy had incorrectly "damned Nigeria and its nationals as matchless in greed and corruption" (Udofia (2003) and Mangalwadi (1998)) – the last sort of response a heartful policy maker would want to see.

Back to our analysis of Hong Kong, the number of households and the average size of households in Hong Kong had been recorded to go in opposite directions through the 20 years from 1971 to 1992. The number of households increased from 857,000 in 1971 to over 1,640,000 in 1992 whereas the average size of a household dropped from around 4.5 persons in 1971 to 3.4 persons in 1992 [15]. And most importantly, no matter how many Chinese dialects there are, almost everyone speaks Cantonese in Hong Kong – these statistics now happen to explain why proactive anti-corruption measures, stringent laws plus an effective judiciary system, and high profile anti-corruption propaganda exercises have become the necessary keys to successful anti-corruption work in this large power distance, collectivist Hong Kong [16].

SKIP TO     Page 1 | Page 2 | Page 3 | Page 4 | Page 5 | Page 6 | References



Note 9: Countries are labeled according to the ISO 3166-1 Alpha-2 country codes. For details, please see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_country_code

Note 10: According to Hofstede (1986), power distance describe to what extent members of a society are willing to accept the inequality, and so: small power distance means that the extent to which less powerful people accept the social inequality is small, that is members of a society are treated as equal as possible in an unequal society; large power distance means that a big inequality in power is considered by the less powerful members of a society as normal.

Note 11: Idea adapted from an analogy of the teacher-student and student-teacher model (Hofstede, 1986).

Note 12: For details, see Polak's (2001) path of analysis in "Power Distance Dimension and Methodology."

Note 13: According to Hofstede (2001), the word "collectivism" in this sense has no political meaning: it refers to the group, not to the state. Again, the issue addressed by this dimension is an extremely fundamental one, regarding all societies in the world.

Note 14: According to USCIA (2003), Nigeria, which is Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%.

Note 15: Source: (1) General Household Survey and (2) Reports on Population Censuses, Census and Statistics Department, HKSAR Government.

Note 16: Notes: Hong Kong was a collectivist society in the 1960s to 70s but has gradually changed to an individualist society – meaning that corruption will become more of a problem in the years to come.




Commentary and reflection pages by Raymond Cheng, PhD DPA FRSA

  Main • Commentary   Special Foci • Syndicated News | Corruption | Socialism | GuanXi

  Health Related • Traditional Chinese Medicine   Others • OXLL


© 1997-2014 The Commentary, Office of Dr Raymond Cheng. All rights reserved. Copyright of selected news articles, the headlines and logos belongs to the respective entities. Read disclaimer

Digital platform powered by Wyith Limited, Wyith Institute. Wyith Limited and Wyith Institute are associated businesses operated by the Office of Dr Raymond Cheng • Dr Raymond Cheng & Partners Ltd and The Commentary Ltd.

SHORTCUT TO MAIN SECTIONS & ARTICLES
Home  •  About this site  •  How did we once fight corruption in colonial Hong Kong?
 •  Historical US administrative thoughts  •  USA versus colonial Hong Kong
 •  Anti-corruption review of Nigeria  •  Procurement monitoring in Nigeria
 •  Syndicated news  •  Usman's blog  •  Anti-graft news  •  Socialist news

Contact the editor at raymond {dot} cheng {at} kellogg {dot} oxon {dot} org

RESERVED SECTION FOR MEMBERS
The RendezvousBuildersCommentatorsContributorsReadersResearchers
Reflection Pages • Miscellaneous Stuff
The difference between instant evaluation and improving recognition – November 20
Freddy Krueger revisited: Politically correct education? – October 23
From the evaluator's perspective: Justified conclusions and decisions – October 8
Online and distance-learning degrees from the evaluator's perspective – September 25
The moment fake degrees turned recognized and appraised – September 9

Photo credits for top title bar, from left to right: Iza H (Work), Lukasz Gumowski (Blue balls), Marcin Bania (Smiling and naked), Lautaro Gonda (Milan station), Jan Abt (Girl taking a picture), Daniel Tang (Hot switch), Barbara Henry (Moriah reading), Ralf Herrmann (Checkmate II), Marko Roeper (Led #4), Ian Russell (Girl in downtown LA).
Note: Animated GIF graphics and clipart obtained from amazing-animations.com, gifs.net, findicons.com, clker.com and sevenoaksart.co.uk. Sketches, cartoons and other handdrawings courtesy of Alice-the-Artist.

Special Alert! This is *NOT* the American Jewish Committee's Commentary Magazine! Special notice! This is not the American Jewish Committee's Commentary Magazine nor are we in any way affiliated with them. To visit AJC's magazine, please go to commentarymagazine.com instead, thank you for your attention.
Memo with pin Technical memos for members
Receiving using Gmail | Sending using Gmail
0x800ccc0e | 0x800ccc19 | 0x800ccc79

This site is best viewed with Microsoft® Internet Explorer 6.0 or above, minimum 1024x768 16M color-depth resolution. The Commentary Group and its personnel do not endorse external sites and are not responsible for the content of these websites. All external sites will open in a new browser window.




 
COUNT ON THE STATISTICS  100% Towels (c) Daniel Chittka
Photo © Daniel Chittka

This new section contains some interesting statistics in bribe and corruption, please check back for more as we pile up our numbers!

It's statistics time!  Using n-gram: kickback, graft, bribe and corruption - Comparison of their historical occurrences from 1810 to 2009 A.D.

  The word guanxi (collocation) and meanings of bribe: Deeply rooted, disgusting, sad endings

LATEST STUFF TO PONDER UPON
Looking for a good book (c) Doug Logan
Photo © Doug Logan
tagged by area of interestBY AREA OF INTEREST
Trends
Pragmatics: Politeness trends from the historical perspective of global trade
Computer mediated communications: Social network – Came riding the waves of amazing coincidences
Analysis
Language acquisition:
A critique on "A corpus driven study of the potential for vocabulary learning through watching movies"

Grammatical analysis: "When a linguist stumbled upon a Buttonwood"
Lexicon and the corpus: "John Sinclair's lexical items – an introduction"
tagged by regionBY REGION • Anything AsiaUS Presence in Asia
Communist ChinaNationalist TaiwanHong Kong and MacauJapanKoreaSingaporeMalaysiaPhilippinesPakistanIndiaAfghanistanVietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand and MyanmarTimor-Leste and IndonesiaMongoliaNew Zealand and Australia
tagged by topicsBY TOPIC • BiofuelRhino and elephant poachingAmerican movies hit China marketChina Internet censorshipChina's outward FDI opportunitiesGlobal rice yield
ISLAND DISPUTES – FROM A DISTANCE
Island disputes in Southeast Asia | Senkakus-Diaoyu and historical findings | Dokdo-Takeshima | Spratly, Paracel, Scarborough | Kurils

For those you who don't have time to read all our news excerpts about the Asian island disputes (links above), you may find the following video, "The economic impact of a war between Japan and China", very enlightening.



© Minute MBA: More from onlinemba.com

Free Pussy Riot!
Free Pussy Riot!

Photo © Igor Mukhin, retrieved from Wikipedia

"This trial is another example of the Kremlin's attempts to discourage and delegitimize dissent. It is likely to backfire." John Dalhuisen, Director of Amnesty International's Europe and Central Asia Programme

 More from Amnesty InternationalFree Pussy Riot



How it started – Pussy Riot Prayers, February 2012

PUSSY RIOT CHRONOLOGY 2012
08/17 Pussy Riot imprisoned on hooliganism charges
08/17 The only professionals in sight
08/19 Pussy Riot protesters arrested in Marseille
08/20 NZ PM – Sentence 'disproportionate'
08/20 Pussy Riot fear their kids being put in care
08/22 German supporters face criminal charges
08/22 Pussy Riot – it's carefully calibrated
08/23 Russian church-state corruption unveiled
08/23 Putin's secret weapon: The Orthodox faithful
08/24 Putin-nominated watchdog slams convictions
08/31 'Pussy Riot ritual killing', man detained
09/03 Orthodox deacon speaks over verdict
09/06 Putin denies part in 'Pussy Riot case'
09/10 Pussy Riot benefit concert draws 1,000
09/10 Gorbachev says verdict "disproportionate"
09/19 Punk group to transfer to remote penal colony
09/21 Aung San calls on Moscow to release RP
10/01 Sentence appeal delayed until Oct 10
10/10 Katya freed, 2 years for Nadya and Masha
10/16 Masha and Nadya sent to remote labor prison



BBC • Pussy Riot women begin life in prison

11/16 Merkel challanges Putin on imprisonment
11/22 Maria Alekhina transferred to solitary cell
11/28 Tolokonnikova's appeal case goes to court
12/24 Extremist videos appeal adjourned

PUSSY RIOT CHRONOLOGY 2013
01/15 Masha's sentence deferment denied
02/01 PR civil claim granted right to appeal
02/07 Pussy Riot files complaint with ECHR
03/06 Ombudsman asks court to overturn verdict
03/08 Protesters detained in Moscow
04/13 PR gets reprimand: parole problematic
04/21 PR defense seeks abolition of conviction
07/26 Parole denied, PR remains defiant



The Knife supporting PR at Pukkelpop

08/17 Against verdict on PR – Day of Solidarity
08/23 PR seeks mitigation of remaining sentence
GLUCK ON SOCIALISM AND CHINA Asia (c) Robert Churchill
Photo © Robert Churchill

Professor Sidney Gluck (c) Sandi BachomI am honored to have obtained Professor Sidney Gluck's (right) permission to allow me to repost here some of his work and interview related to China and socialism. Professor Gluck is professor emertius at the New School University in New York. A classical Marxist, Gluck has been studying China for 60 years in history and modern development. He has lectured all over the U.S. and still welcomes engagement at the age of 94 – photo © Sandi Bachom

FEATURED ARTICLES

TECHNOLOGY BLOG BY USMAN KHURSHID
Usman Khurshid on Mike McCune's HD Monitor with Paths Technize.net logo with Maartje van Caspel's Public Space
I am proud to announce that the Commentary.com website is now carrying the technology updates from Usman Khurshid's Technize.net. Usman is a network consultant and works in a mixed environment of Windows and Linux platforms. He likes to study about the latest advancements in computer technology and shares his views on his blog.

Click here to read Usman's tech blog
Subscribe to RSS feed
Photo © Usman Khurshid, Mike McCune, Maartje van Caspel
COMING 2014 – COMPUTING CORPUS Active Network Hub (c) Phil Sigin-Lavdanski
Photo © Phil Sigin-Lavdanski

Oh, please do not get me wrong. This new section is not about computers, electronics or any engineering stuff, but rather I am currently constructing a new corpus based on Spectrum, the monthly publication from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers USA, from July 2007 to date. Having been a member for over 20 years since 1992, I am always fascinated by some of the terms scientists use when they talk about or envision their new inventions or methodologies. How many of them eventually come into practice? Could there be some insights we could possibly derive, from the linguistics perspective?

IMPORTANT NOTICE AND DISCLAIMER

This website is published and designed by
Raymond Cheng, PhD DPA and reflects only his personal views and opinions in his individual capacity. It does not represent the views and opinions of his firm, employer(s), students, etc., and is not in any way sponsored or endorsed by any other thrid parties. Click here to read my full disclaimer
SHARE THIS WEBSITE WITH SOCIAL MEDIA

Share on Twitter  Add to Facebook  Share on LinkedIn  +1 on Google