The period beginning in the late sixties, i.e. around 1968,
to the late eighties, i.e. up to around 1988, was recognized as
the reassertion period of democratic idealism as the gap between
theory and practice continued to widen. It was a period flooded
with another wave of thoughts when the United States saw its
greatest and loudest outcry against statism . (Stillman, 2005, p.23).
More specifically, as old texts seemed to become outdated,
the past public administrative POSDCORB model and the Social
Science Heterodoxy were both eventually rejected as the idea of
democratic idealism, together with the proliferation of new
subfields and techniques, started to flourish among both the
people's and the scholars' minds. And naturally, as
administrative thinkers in this newer generation rejected the old
hierarchical systems models, they started to embrace the new
concept of a "fragmented, overlapping, and decentralized
authority" (Stillman, 2005, p. 23) because they believed that the
bureaucratic systems contained flaws (e.g. Nixon's Watergate in
1974) that would no longer be applicable to the new subfields,
conform to the new techniques, and would otherwise deviate from
the original democratic values of the people.
As a result, the era is characterized by a huge increased in
people's democratic participation in the government and the study
of administration had broadened to include public management,
public policy theories, and so on. And thus, there was also an
increase in the number of specializations in the field of public
administration (Stillman, 2005, p. 24).
Woodrow Wilson's 1887 Envision
Industrial Revolution, Telegraph Bubbles  in 1840s and 1850s, Railway Bubbles in 1880s and 1890s
Probably the first one to call for the study of public administration
Great Depression (stocks and credit bubbles in 1920s) and WWII -- need to cope with industrial production for WWII and first expansion of government
A "military-like" model attempting to produce ideal systems of economy via a rational process with a logical sequence of steps
Social Science Heterodoxy
Post WWII, beginning of the Cold War, the U.S. assumed the role of worldˇ¦s superpower, rapid increase in the size of government, Domino Theory followed by U.S. intervention in Korean and Vietnam War
POSDCORB considered insufficient, government was inefficient and ineffective; public administration expanded into various other emerging fields like social sciences, political sciences, psychology, cultural studies, business, and economics
Reassertion of Democratic Idealism
Flawed bureaucratic systems, e.g. Nixon's Watergate in 1974
Gaps between theories and practice widened, old hierarchical systems models rejected, increased democratic participation; outcry against statism and calls for "fragmented, overlapping, and decentralized authority" emerged; public administration broadened into several subfields and techniques
Table 1: Brief summary of administrative thoughts before 1990
Note 3: According to Stillman (2005), statism is a doctrine that advocates the strengthening of the role and sovereignty of the state institutions in a society.
Note 4: Excluding the dot-com bubble in 2000, six major bubbles (or over-investment) occurred in the history of the U.S. over the last 200 years.
They are the telegraph bubbles in the 1840s and 1850s, the railroad bubbles in the 1880s
and 1890s, and the stocks and credit bubble in the 1920s during the period of the
Great Depression, for further details, see http://money.cnn.com/2007/05/13/news/economy/bubbles_gross/
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For those you who don't have time
to read all our news excerpts about the Asian island
disputes (links above), you may find the following video,
"The economic impact of a war between Japan and China",
"This trial is another example of the Kremlin's attempts to discourage and delegitimize dissent. It is likely to backfire."
John Dalhuisen, Director of Amnesty International's Europe and Central Asia Programme
I am proud to announce that
the Commentary.com website is now carrying the technology updates
from Usman Khurshid's Technize.net.
Usman is a network consultant and works in a mixed environment
of Windows and Linux platforms.
He likes to study about the
latest advancements in computer technology and shares his views on his blog.
Oh, please do not get me wrong.
This new section is not about computers, electronics or
any engineering stuff, but rather I am currently constructing
a new corpus based on Spectrum, the monthly publication
from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers USA,
from July 2007 to date. Having been a member for
over 20 years since 1992, I am always fascinated by
some of the terms scientists use when they talk about or
envision their new inventions or methodologies. How many of
them eventually come into practice? Could there be
some insights we could possibly derive, from
the linguistics perspective?
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